Reflections on the Francoist repression after the Spanish Civil War." , Another significant Soviet involvement was the activity of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) inside the Republican rearguard. SAN FRANCESCO ED IL CANTICO DELLE CREATURE 158. Italiano: La Guerra civile spagnola (17 luglio 1936 - 1 aprile 1939) è considerata come la prova generale della Seconda Guerra Mondiale. Die Premium Access-Vereinbarung Ihres Teams läuft bald ab. Venne costruito in appena sei mesi e doveva presentare al mondo la complessa realtà del popolo spagnolo, con una mostra della sua migliore produzione culturale. Conversely, historians such as Stanley Payne, Julius Ruiz and José Sánchez argue that the political violence in the Republican zone was in fact organized by the left: In general, this was not an irrepressible outpouring of hatred, by the man in the street for his "oppressors", as it has sometimes been painted, but a semi-organized activity carried out by sections of nearly all the leftist groups. because they had more chances to demonstrate the requisite battlefield heroism and had also traditionally enjoyed promotion by seniority. The Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country. "Fighting Against Democracy: Military Factions in the Second Spanish Republic and Civil War (1931–1939)." "Terror and Violence: The Dark Face of Spanish Anarchism." Twentieth-century Spain: politics and society, 1898–1998. The initial government would be an all-military "Directory", which would create a "strong and disciplined state." The battle lasted into January. It makes the reader is easy to know the meaning of the contentof this book.  The Spanish commander of every military unit on the Republican side was attended by a "Comissar Politico" of equal rank, who represented Moscow..  The disenchantment with Azaña's rulling was also voiced by Miguel de Unamuno, a republican and one of Spain's most respected intellectuals who, in June 1936, told a reporter who published his statement in El Adelanto that President Manuel Azaña should commit suicide as a patriotic act”.. highest considered estimate, Jackson, Gabriel (2005). They had little impact on the government, and could not shake the strong public mood for peace. Resource Information.  At this point once the constituent assembly had fullfilled its mandate of approving a new constitution, it should have arranged for regular parliamentary elections and adjourned.  Mola began serious planning in the spring. Paris International World's Fair, 1937, Josep Lluís / Luis Sert i López / Lacasa, 1987, From the collection of: Museo Reina Sofia. But he was not at home, so they went to the house of José Calvo Sotelo, a leading Spanish monarchist and a prominent parliamentary conservative.  Anarchists and the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista, POUM) were integrated into the regular army, albeit with resistance. Voluntarios De FAYÓN. , Hundreds of thousands of Republicans fled abroad, with some 500,000 fleeing to France. Il comunismo è un'utopia. The revolution in the Republican zone at the outset of the war, in which 7,000 clergy and thousands of lay people were killed, deepened Catholic support for the Nationalists. Seidman argues that severe terror, combined with control of the food supply, explains the general lack of guerilla warfare in the Nationalist rear. [note 61] The "Execution" of the Sacred Heart of Jesus by Communist militiamen at Cerro de los Ángeles near Madrid, on 7 August 1936, was the most infamous of widespread desecration of religious property. The first three months of the war were the bloodiest, with 50 to 70 percent of all executions carried out by Franco's regime, from 1936 to 1975, occurring during this period. La guerra civile spagnola : 1936-1939. lowest considered estimate, includes 150,000 KIA and 185,000 victims of rearguard repression, Bernecker, Walter L.  After a year of intense pressure, CEDA, the party with the most seats in parliament, finally succeeded in forcing the acceptance of three ministries. The Spanish Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil Española)[note 2] was a civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939. In July, the Nationalist army pressed southward from Teruel and south along the coast toward the capital of the Republic at Valencia, but was halted in heavy fighting along the XYZ Line, a system of fortifications defending Valencia.  In total, Germany provided the Nationalists with 600 planes and 200 tanks.  While the militias that rose to meet the rebels were often untrained and poorly armed (possessing only a small number of pistols, shotguns and dynamite), this was offset by the fact that the rebellion was not universal. Cartamoneta - Guerra civile spagnola. Of the eighteen division generals, only four rebelled (of the four division generals without postings, two rebelled and two remained loyal). Strikes, workplace theft, arson, robbery and assaults on shops, strikebreakers, employers and machines became increasingly common. In some cases this was done in the company of armed militants. Also, the Soviet Union directed Communist parties around the world to organise and recruit the International Brigades. Azaña was hesitant to use the army to shoot or stop rioters or protestors as many of them supported his coalition. The Spanish Civil War broke out in July 1936 as a result of social and political tensions. In June and July the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, known as the CNT, called several strikes, which led to a violent incident between CNT members and the Civil Guard and a brutal crackdown by the Civil Guard and the army against the CNT in Seville. Payment for the war on both sides was very high. Nonprofit Organization. including 285,000 KIA, 125,000 civilians "due to war directed causes", 200,000 malnutrition., Sandler, Stanley (2002). , Many Americans volunteered and arrived in Spain in 1937. , The Spanish Civil War exposed political divisions across Europe. , During the first few months, both armies were joined in high numbers by volunteers, Nationalists by some 100,000 men and Republicans by some 120,000. Y1 - 2019/1/1. The city was taken by Franco on 8 February. N/A. , The Nationalist side conducted aerial bombing of cities in Republican territory, carried out mainly by the Luftwaffe volunteers of the Condor Legion and the Italian air force volunteers of the Corpo Truppe Volontarie: Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Guernica, Durango, and other cities were attacked. Since not all localities had enough labour for the tasks required, the law had unintended negative consequences, such as sometimes shutting out peasants and renters from the labour market when they needed extra income as pickers. Questo mi era scappato: l'Ageod ha annunciato un suo gioco (ovviamente con il suo classico motore) sulla guerra civile spagnola del 1936-1939. , Romanian volunteers were led by Ion Moța, deputy-leader of the Iron Guard ("Legion of the Archangel Michael"), whose group of Seven Legionaries visited Spain in December 1936 to ally their movement with the Nationalists. Lyden, Jacki. How to engage your audience in any online presentation; Sept. 2, 2020. In Granada, where working-class neighborhoods were hit with artillery and right-wing squads were given free rein to kill government sympathizers, at least 2,000 people were murdered. La Guerra civila spagnola è vegnida manada en Spagna dal fanadur 1936 fin l’avrigl 1939 tranter la regenza elegida a moda democratica da la Segunda Republica spagnola (‹Republicans›) ed ils putschists da dretga sut general Francisco Franco (‹falangists›). 80 likes.  Franco was a key player because of his prestige as a former director of the military academy and as the man who suppressed the Asturian miners' strike of 1934. The figure is based on totals reported as "violent deaths" in the official statistics for 1936–1942 and calculated by Ramón Tamames, lowest considered estimate, 145,000 in combat and 110,000 executed, Moa (2015), p. 44, lowest considered estimate, Bowen (2006), p. 113. Molti vi combattono e dedicano opere alla vicenda: Hemingway, Orwell, Malraux, Koestler, Neruda, Machado, Mirò, Picasso: per tutti la Spagna resta un’esperienza indimenticabile. , In 1985 in an interview with Scripps-Howard editors, President Ronald Reagan said that most Americans believed that their fellow Americans who fought with the Loyalist forces were on the wrong side. "the war cost about 750,000 Spanish lives". Forgot account? , In 2008 a Spanish judge, Baltasar Garzón, opened an investigation into the executions and disappearances of 114,266 people between 17 July 1936 and December 1951. I regard him as an extraordinary personality for his intelligence, his political sense and his humility. On the other hand, he was reluctant to disarm the military as he believed he needed them to stop insurrections from the extreme left.  The German strategists successfully argued that the Nationalists needed to concentrate on vulnerable areas first. The second component of domestic resource was fiscal revenue. Produced by both nationalists and republicans, propaganda allowed Spaniards a way to spread awareness about their war all over the world. There were fewer executions than usual, however, because of the effect Guernica left on Nationalists' reputations internationally.  Germany also used the war to test new weapons, such as the Luftwaffe Junkers Ju 87 Stukas and Junkers Ju-52 transport Trimotors (used also as Bombers), which showed themselves to be effective.  This facilitated the defeat of the army insurrection in the main industrial centres, including Madrid, Barcelona, and Valencia, but it allowed anarchists to take control of Barcelona along with large swathes of Aragón and Catalonia. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. His novel L'Espoir and the film version he produced and directed (Espoir: Sierra de Teruel) were a great help for the Republican cause in France. Indice. definition - Aerei_militari_della_guerra_civile_spagnola. Officers supporting the coup tended to be africanistas (men who fought in North Africa between 1909 and 1923) while those who stayed loyal tended to be peninsulares (men who stayed back in Spain during this period). Thus they fared poorly in combat, particularly against the professional Army of Africa armed with modern weapons, ultimately contributing to Franco's rapid advance. 215,000 in combat, 200,000 killed in rearguard, 70,000 due to wartime hardships, 11,000 civilian victims of military operations; the author later rounds up the total to 0,5m, Alonso Millán, Jesús (2015).  The Nationalists also frequently killed military officers who refused to support them in the early days of the coup. Many visited Spain, hoping to find authentic anti-fascism in practise. German aid to the Nationalists amounted to approximately £43,000,000 ($215,000,000) in 1939 prices,[note 3] 15.5% of which was used for salaries and expenses and 21.9% for direct delivery of supplies to Spain, while 62.6% was expended on the Condor Legion. British historian Antony Beevor wrote in his history of the Civil War that Franco's ensuing "white terror" resulted in the deaths of 200,000 people and that the "red terror" killed 38,000.  The Nationalists won the war, which ended in early 1939, and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975. Included were sections of Latin American and Irish volunteers, organized as the Centuria Guttieras and the Connolly Column, respectively. He was replaced by General Dámaso Berenguer, who was in turn himself replaced by Admiral Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas; both men continued a policy of rule by decree.  Michael Seidman argues that the hatred of the Republicans for the clergy was in excess of anything else; while local revolutionaries might spare the lives of the rich and right-wingers, they seldom offered the same to priests. "at least" and "between 1936 and 1945", includes 300,000 "combatants", Salvadó, Francisco Romero (2013), Dupuy, Dupuy (1977), p. 1032, Teed (1992), 439, Martínez de Baños, Szafran (2011), p. 324, highest considered estimate, Payne (2012), p. 245, sfn error: no target: CITEREFJackson1967 (. Visualizzazione post con etichetta guerra civile spagnola. Lv 6. (2013). La guerra civile spagnola. This led many workers to believe the Spanish Second Republic was just as oppressive as the monarchy, and the CNT announced its intention of overthrowing it via revolution. , The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides.  Italian warships took part in breaking the Republican navy's blockade of Nationalist-held Spanish Morocco and took part in naval bombardment of Republican-held Málaga, Valencia, and Barcelona. La guerra civile spagnola [Beevor, Antony, Peru, E.] on Amazon.com.au.  The deaths would form the prevailing outside opinion of the republic up until the bombing of Guernica.. , The Republican government then launched an all-out campaign to reconnect their territory in the Battle of the Ebro, from 24 July until 26 November, where Franco personally took command. Casanova, Julián. The figure they arrive at for the 1936–1939 period is 346,000; the figure for 1936–1942, including the years of postwar deaths resulting from terror and war sufferings, is 540,000. The destruction had a significant effect on international opinion. at most 300,000 "violent deaths" + 165,000 above average deaths, Payne, Stanley G. (1987). Advertizing Wikipedia. Muñoz, Miguel A. , The uprising's timing was fixed at 17 July, at 17:01, agreed to by the leader of the Carlists, Manuel Fal Conde. Not a fan . The first one was during the Northern Campaign (March–November 1937), followed by a second wave after the fall of Catalonia (January–February 1939), in which about 400,000 people fled to France. Republican leader Casares Quiroga was replaced by José Giral, who ordered the distribution of weapons among the civilian population.  From August onward aid started to be sent from Russia, over one ship per day arrived at Spain's Mediterranean ports carrying munitions, rifles, machine guns, hand grenades, artillery and trucks. According to Stanley Payne, by July 1936, the situation in Spain had deteriorated massively.
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