trattato di trianon

Romsics, Ignác. It was signed on June 4, 1920, at the Trianon Palace at Versailles, France . [citation needed] During the rule of Károlyi's pacifist cabinet, Hungary lost the control over approx. The last census before the Treaty of Trianon was held in 1910. Heavy artillery, tanks and air force were prohibited. Englische Übersetzung von Trattato del Trianon. Le minoranze ungheresi negli stati successori. The central parts of Banat were later assigned to Romania, respecting the wishes of Romanians from this area, which, on 1 December 1918, were present in the National Assembly of Romanians in Alba Iulia, which voted for union with the Kingdom of Romania. The Hungarian "Conditions of Peace" were dated 15 January 1920, and their "Observations" handed in on 20 February. In late May, after the Entente military representative demanded more territorial concessions from Hungary, Kun attempted to "fulfill" his promise to adhere to Hungary's historical borders. [25] The political collapse of Austria-Hungary itself was now only a matter of days away. The Hungarians could not take part in the negotiations, so the treaty was dictated by the victorious powers of the Entente (Südosteuropa Lexikon 517), to refinance the war … A. Basch, European Economic Nationalism (Washington, 1943); L. Pasvolsky, Economic Nationalism of the Danubian States (New York, 1929). - Sir Winston Churchill Watch the video now. These decisions and their consequences have been the cause of deep resentment in Hungary ever since. [63] During prior negotiations, the Hungarian party, along with the Austrian, advocated the American principle of self-determination: that the population of disputed territories should decide by free plebiscite to which country they wished to belong. [112] The Hungarians did not see it this way because the newly defined borders did not fully respect territorial distribution of ethnic groups,[113] with areas where there were Hungarian majorities[113] outside the new borders. Flood-light on Europe: a guide to the next war The Romanians joined their ethnic brethren in Romania, while the Slovaks, Serbs and Croats helped establish nation-states of their own (Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia). This happened under the direction of Béla Linder, (minister of war) on 2 November 1918[28][29] The Hungarian Royal Honvéd army still had more than 1,400,000 soldiers[30][31] when Mihály Károlyi was announced as prime minister of Hungary. Thus, the resulting uneasiness and despondency of one part of the concerned population was later one of the main antecedents of World War II. (2018), Rudolf Chmel, "Syndrom of Trianon in Hungarian Foreign Policy and Act on Hungarians Living in Neighboring Countries.". Nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg musste Ungarn zwei Drittel seines früheren Staatsgebietes abgeben. [118], Hungary's bitter memory was also a source of regional tension after the Cold War ended in 1989. French diplomats played the major role in the drafting, and Hungarians were kept in the dark. English Otherwise, the Treaty of Trianon will come to represent for all of us something that is not good Il trattato del Trianon fu il trattato di pace con cui le potenze vincitrici della prima guerra mondiale stabilirono le sorti del Regno d'Ungheria in seguito alla dissoluzione dell' Impero austro-ungarico. A. J. P. Taylor, The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918, 1948. [17] This caused a rapidly escalating July Crisis resulting in Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia, followed quickly by the entry of most European powers into the First World War. Trattato del Trianon (1920) - Trattato di pace firmato dopo la Prima guerra mondiale, col quale l'Ungheria perse il 72% circa dei suoi territori. Within the borders of "Hungary proper" numerous ethnic minorities were present: 16.1% Romanians, 10.5% Slovaks, 10.4% Germans, 2.5% Ruthenians, 2.5% Serbs and 8% others. Original from the University of California A cura della Lega per la revisione del Trattato di Trianon. 1922. In 1918 Germany tried to overwhelm the Allies on the Western Front; it failed. President Woodrow Wilson acted as an independent force and his Fourteen Points was accepted by Germany as a basis for the armistice of November 1918. Questo alla fine portò agli Arbitrati di Vienna (primo e secondo), dove venne restituita una parte significativa (circa il 25%, ovvero 55.000 km²) del territorio perso nel 1920. Il principio della riorganizzazione, su base etnica, della carta dell'Europa, accolto dal trattato in base ai Quattordici punti di Woodrow Wilson, paradossalmente - secondo lo storico britannico Eric Hobsbawm - fornì una giustificazione alle successive pulizie etniche e, addirittura, all'Olocausto degli Ebrei[2]. In caso contrario, il trattato di Trianon finirà per rappresentare per tutti noi un ricordo tutt'altro che positivo. N. Layton and Ch. [124] Meanwhile, the territory of present-day Czech Republic (Kingdom of Bohemia) owned 75% of the whole industrial capacity of former Austria-Hungary. The Treaty of Trianon was signed between the Allied Forces and Kingdom of Hungary. The treaty was dictated by the Allies rather than negotiated, and the Hungarians had no option but to accept its terms. [111] For non-Hungarians from the Pannonian Basin it was a process of decolonisation instead of a punitive dismemberment (as was seen by the Hungarians). Hence, much of the rail cargo traffic of the emergent states was virtually paralysed. Ausspracheführer: Lernen Sie Trattato del Trianon auf Italienisch muttersprachlich auszusprechen. Item notes: pt. [51] The lengthy negotiation process was recorded on a daily basis by János Wettstein [hu], deputy first secretary of the Hungarian delegation. Hungary then controlled the territory to its old borders; regained control of industrial areas around Miskolc, Salgótarján, Selmecbánya, Kassa. Kun then unsuccessfully tried to turn the remaining units of the demoralized Hungarian Red Army on the Romanians. Despite a series of military victories against the Czechoslovak army, the Hungarian Red Army started to disintegrate due to tension between nationalists and communists during the establishment of the Slovak Soviet Republic. After King Charles's withdrawal from government on 16 November 1918 made Károlyi proclaim the First Hungarian Republic, with himself as provisional president of the republic. As a consequence of the treaty, all the competitive industries of the former empire were compelled to close doors, as great capacity was met by negligible demand owing to economic barriers presented in the form of the newly defined borders. Risultati del Censimento del 1920. By Domokos G. Kosáry, Steven Béla Várdy, Danubian Research Center This was later known as the Red Terror in Hungary. [20], On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war against Germany, and in December 1917 against Austria-Hungary. Le province che l'Ungheria perse con il trattato avrebbero avuto una popolazione in maggioranza non ungherese, ma anche delle significative minoranze ungheresi e territori con una maggioranza ungherese (Slovacchia del sud, parti della Transilvania e parti della Vojvodina). Guarda gli esempi di traduzione di Trattato del Trianon nelle frasi, ascolta la pronuncia e impara la grammatica. Rispetto a quella del Regno di Ungheria, la popolazione dell'Ungheria post-Trianon venne ridotta da 19 milioni a 7 milioni, mentre la superficie territoriale venne ridotta di due terzi. Magyarok Trianonban.jpg 1,568 × 606; 276 KB. ", Peter Pastor, "Hungarian and Soviet Efforts to Possess Ruthenia", Spatiul istoric si etnic romanesc, Editura Militara, Bucuresti, 1992. On 20 March 1919, Béla Kun, who had been imprisoned in the Markó Street prison, was released. Panduan pengucapan: Pelajari cara mengucapkan Trattato del Trianon dalam Bahasa Italia dari penutur aslinya. on 5 November 1918, the Serbian army, with the help of the French army, crossed southern borders. Bilingualism was also disappearing. L'unica direzione geografica e politica aperta alla politica estera magiara rimase appunto l'Italia fascista, e l'Austria (quindi la Germania nazista dopo l'Anschluss). The Austro-Hungarian monarchy politically collapsed and disintegrated as a result of a defeat in the Italian Front (World War I). "Major trends in Hungarian foreign policy from the collapse of the monarchy to the peace treaty of Trianon. While the term was not used self-determination was assumed. Part of Transylvania south of the Mureş river (Romanian: Mureş; Hungarian: Maros) and east of the Someş river (Romanian: Someş; Hungarian: Szamos), which came un… After World War II approximately 200,000 Germans were deported to Germany, according to the decree of the Potsdam Conference. This territorial expansion was short-lived, since the post-war Hungarian boundaries in the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 were nearly identical to those of 1920 (with three villages – Horvátjárfalu, Oroszvár, and Dunacsún – transferred to Czechoslovakia). [8][13], The current boundaries of Hungary are the same as those defined by the Treaty of Trianon, with some minor modifications until 1924 regarding the Hungarian-Austrian border and the notable exception of three villages that were transferred to Czechoslovakia in 1947. The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 to formally end World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary. Le potenze vincitrici … After these population movements, Hungary became a nearly ethnically homogeneous country. [3] in Joseph Held, ed., Miller, Vol. Hungary also renounced all privileges in territories outside Europe that were administered by the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Digitized 13 November 2008 p. 114, History of the Hungarian Nation Post-Trianon Hungary possessed 90% of the engineering and printing industry of the pre-war Kingdom, while only 11% of timber and 16% of iron was retained. [65] According to some opinions, the Allies drafted the outline of the new frontiers[66] with little or no regard to the historical, cultural, ethnic, geographic, economic and strategic aspects of the region. For all intents and purposes, the death knell of the Austro-Hungarian empire sounded on 14 October 1918, when United States Secretary of State Robert Lansing informed Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister István Burián that autonomy for the nationalities was no longer enough. King Charles had no other option than the appointment of Mihály Károlyi as prime minister of Hungary. [19] Irredentism—that is the demand for reunification of Hungarian peoples became a central theme of Hungarian politics and diplomacy. [27] Károlyi yielded to U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's demand for pacifism by ordering the disarmament of the Hungarian army. WikiMatrix WikiMatrix . Many former Austro-Hungarian officers re-enlisted for patriotic reasons. The final borders of Hungary were defined by the Treaty of Trianon signed on 4 June 1920. However, after the Central Powers had noticed the military manoeuvre, the attempt was quickly choked off and Bucharest fell in the same year. [65] This opinion was not taken into account during the negotiations. The ceasefire line had the character of a temporary international border until the treaty. Un'ulteriore disposizione stabiliva che in Ungheria non potessero essere costruite ferrovie con più di un binario. Trattato del Trianon; trattato di adesione CE; trattato di adesione UE; Trattato di Amiens; trattato di Amsterdam; Trattato di Amsterdam; trattato magyar fordítás és meghatározás "trattato", olasz-magyar szótár online. [11], The principal beneficiaries were the Kingdom of Romania, the Czechoslovak Republic, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), and the First Austrian Republic. Officially the treaty was intended to be a confirmation of the right of self-determination for nations and of the concept of nation-states replacing the old multinational Austro-Hungarian empire. The French sided with their allies the Romanians who had a long policy of cultural ties to France since the country broke from the Ottoman Empire (due in part to the relative ease at which Romanians could learn French)[114] although Clemenceau personally detested Bratianu. By Edwin A. Pratt, The Rise of Rail-Power in War and Conquest, Role in the Weimar Republic's hyperinflation, Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Soviet–Czechoslovakia Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Soviet–British–French Moscow negotiations, ceasefire lines established in November–December 1918, Czechoslovak Regiments were formed in the Italian Army, annexations of territories after the breakup of Yugoslavia, "Text of the Treaty, Treaty of Peace Between The Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary And Protocol and Declaration, Signed at Trianon June 4, 1920", "East on the Danube: Hungary's Tragic Century", "AZ ŐRVIDÉKI (BURGENLANDI) MAGYARSÁG SORSA", http://adatbank.sk/lexikon/pozsonyi-hidfo/, "Trianon volt az utolsó csepp – A Magyar Királyság sorsa már jóval a békeszerződés aláírása előtt eldőlt", "Grand Trianon in Versailles Palace. (Thesis, University of Central Florida, 2006), Bihari, Peter. The Trianon-treaty was the result of negotiations between Hungary and several countries of the Entente. 4 June - Treaty of Trianon, Treaty of Peace between the Allies and Hungary. This sum sunk to a mere 8.6 million crowns after the treaty took effect and resulted in a starving of capital in other regions of the former empire.[132]. On 31 October 1918, in mid of armistice negotiations, the Aster Revolution in Budapest brought liberal Hungarian aristocrat Count Mihály Károlyi, a supporter of the Allied Powers, to power. Cfr. Se vi volas enigi tiun artikolon en la originalan Esperanto-Vikipedion, vi povas uzi nian specialan redakt-interfacon. Per sopprimere le aspirazioni magiare ed accerchiare l'Ungheria in tutti i sensi, i paesi beneficiari del trattato del Trianon (Regno di Romania, Regno di Jugoslavia, Cecoslovacchia) formarono la Piccola Intesa. Variously mentioned throughout Glenny, Misha. Kun ordered the preparation of an offensive against Czechoslovakia, which would increase his domestic support by making good on his promise to restore Hungary's borders. Slovenský náučný slovník, I. zväzok, Bratislava-Český Těšín, 1932. By Felix Wittmer Rispetto a quelli stabiliti diciotto mesi prima, i confini stavolta non comprendevano: In base al trattato del Trianon, le città di Pécs, Mohács, Baja e Szigetvár, che erano state occupate dalla Serbia nel novembre 1918, vennero restituite all'Ungheria. When the French promised the Hungarian government that Romanian forces would withdraw from the Tiszántúl, Kun withdrew his remaining military units who had remained loyal after the political fiasco in Upper Hungary. "Peacebuilding in an Era of State-Nations: The Europe of Trianon. .mw-parser-output .chiarimento{background:#ffeaea;color:#444444}.mw-parser-output .chiarimento-apice{color:red}Alcuni demografi, comunque, ritengono che il censimento del 1910 avesse sovrastimato la percentuale di magiari, argomentando con il fatto che ci sarebbero stati risultati differenti nei precedenti censimenti del regno e nei censimenti successivi[senza fonte]. the Treaty of Trianon France started or planned to form new allies. ", Pastor, Peter. [47] On 20 May 1919, a force under Colonel Aurél Stromfeld attacked and routed Czechoslovak troops from Miskolc. The Hungarian government terminated its union with Austria on 31 October 1918, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian state. [62] This made it possible for Hungary to reach nearly the former Galician (Polish) border, thus separating the Czechoslovak and Romanian troops from each other. Days later the Communists purged the Social Democrats from the government. [37] Demarcation lines defining the territory to remain under Hungarian control were made. Gender: masculine; Type: verb, noun; Copy to clipboard; Details / edit; en.wiktionary.org. The present day location of each area is given in parenthesis. "Hungary on a fixed course: An outline of Hungarian history, 1918–1945." Juni 1920, besiegelte er die 1918/19 erfolgten Sezessionen aus dem Königreich Ungarn – bis 1918 mit Österreich in Realunion verbunden – nach dem für die Doppelmonarchie verlorenen Krieg. Considering the size of discrepancies, some demographers are on the opinion that these censuses were somewhat biased in the favour of the respective ruling nation.[86]. [80] It is also argued that there were different results in previous censuses in the Kingdom of Hungary and subsequent censuses in the new states. After the war, the Austro-Hungarian navy, air force and army were disbanded. The Hungarian state was restored by the Entente powers, helping Admiral Horthy into power in November 1919. This census recorded population by language and religion, but not by ethnicity. Béla Kun, leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, then turned the Hungarian Red Army on the Romanian Army and attacked at the Tisza river on 20 July 1919. Ufficio Centrale di Statistica, Mappa dei confini ungheresi nel novembre/dicembre 1918, Il Trattato del Trianon e lo scorporamento dell'Ungheria, Il Trattato del Trianon e le sue tragiche conseguenze, https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trattato_del_Trianon&oldid=112504118, Accordi diplomatici della prima guerra mondiale, Voci non biografiche con codici di controllo di autorità, licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo, Riassetto dell'Europa danubiana, con ampie cessioni territoriali a favore di, sempre in conformità al trattato di Saint-Germain, gran parte del. or "Everything back!"). [141], Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary, Arrival of the two signatories, Ágost Benárd and Alfréd Drasche-Lázár, on 4 June 1920 at the, Austro-Hungarian Armistice, Aster Revolution and the First Hungarian Republic, Fall of the Hungarian liberal regime and communist coup d'état, Distribution of the non-Hungarian and Hungarian populations, Hungarians outside the newly defined borders, Michael Toomey, "History, nationalism and democracy: myth and narrative in Viktor Orbán’s 'illiberal Hungary'.". Tratatul de la Trianon a fost semnat la data de 4 iunie 1920 între Puterile Aliate învingătoare în Primul Război Mondial și Ungaria, în calitate de stat succesor al Imperiului Austro-Ungar, stat învins în Primul Război Mondial. The troops of Austria-Hungary started a chaotic withdrawal in Battle of Vittorio Veneto and Austria-Hungary began to negotiate a truce on 28 October. Dopo il 1918, l'Ungheria non ebbe più accesso al mare, che invece il Regno di Ungheria aveva avuto, attraverso i territori dell'odierna Croazia, per oltre 800 anni. The main reasons of this process were both spontaneous assimilation and the deliberate Magyarization policy of the state. Schauen Sie sich Beispiele für Trattato dei XXIV articoli-Übersetzungen in Sätzen an, hören Sie sich die Aussprache an … All the formal districts of Austria-Hungary used to rely on each other's exports for growth and welfare; by contrast, 5 years after the treaty, traffic of goods between the countries dropped to less than 5% of its former value. After the military victory of Croatian forces led by, Badescu, Ilie. Hungary was progressing economically very well during late 19 th century into the twentieth century. [121][136] The stated objective was that all countries should become self-sufficient. According to the 1910 census, speakers of the Hungarian language included approximately 48% of the entire population of the kingdom, and 54% of the population of the territory referred to as "Hungary proper", i.e. Trattato del Trianon (1920) - Trattato di pace firmato dopo la Prima guerra mondiale, col quale […] l'Ungheria perse il 72% circa dei suoi territori. See/download bungalow rates Wooden bungalows Trianon Capacity 4 People. Unable to reject these terms and unwilling to accept them, the leaders of the Hungarian Democratic Republic resigned and the Communists seized power. The American war aim was end aggressive militarism as shown by Berlin and Vienna. [117] The perceived humiliation of the treaty became a dominant theme in inter-war Hungarian politics, analogous with the German reaction to the Treaty of Versailles. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, The Paris Peace Conference and its Consequences, Map of Hungarian borders in November–December 1918, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Treaties of the Kingdom of Hungary (1922–1946), Treaties of the Hungarian People's Republic, Treaties of the Third Republic of Hungary, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Treaty_of_Trianon&oldid=992756177, Treaties of the Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1946), Treaties of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946), Treaties of the Portuguese First Republic, Treaties of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Treaties of the United Kingdom (1801–1922), Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2015, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing Hungarian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 2,831,222 Romanians (53.8%).

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